Fat cells store excess energy and signal these levels to the brain. In a new study this week in Nature Medicine, Georgios Paschos PhD, a research associate in the lab of Garret FitzGerald, MD, FRS director of the Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, shows that deletion of the clock gene Arntl, also known as Bmal1, in fat cells, causes mice to become obese, with a shift in the timing of when this nocturnal species normally eats. These findings shed light on the complex causes of obesity in humans.Note that fat cells "store excess energy."
If you do not eat excess energy, you will not store fat.
That is true no matter when you eat.
Therefore, it is what you eat, i.e., the number of Calories, not when you eat.
There is no "complex cause of obesity."
There is only more Calories in than out.